Cellular Mechanism of Action – PBM and ATP

Photobiomodulation (PBM)

Metabolic dysfunction has been associated with many disorders and disease states including aging and degenerative disorders. Oxidative stress and impaired mitochondrial function may contribute to several ocular disorders.

Retinal cells are one of the most energy-dependent cells in the body.

PBM at selected wavelengths can directly stimulate the production of mitochondrial energy.


Recent scientific publications have demonstrated the benefits of PBM on cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) gene expression in wounded, diabetic and ischemic cells, showing a significant stimulation in transcription of genes involved in the electron transport chain, a critical mitochondrial pathway utilized to convert oxygen (O2) into energy. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a major form of stored energy produced in cells.The genes that appear to be involved include CCO and ATP synthase as well as others.

PBM results in an up regulation of several genes involved in energy metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation, thus stimulating an increase in ATP production, which regulates other cellular processes, leading to normalization of cellular functions.